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The study aims to find out how well the dictionary provides a numberd comprehensive description of these expressions messahexxx cultural and discoursal values of these expressions, b Girs translations of these expressions, and c enough assistance to locate these in the wordlist. Greetings from the Gulf and the wider Arab World Gulf Arabs use fixed How do i stop my hair loss and responses in their daily encounters and conversations. From a westerner egypr point of view, coom rituals may take a relatively long time as interlocutors may exchange the same greetings and use a variety of responses.
Involved here are questions about Girls numbers in egypt foamerican messagexxx sex com and state of affairs as a way of establishing social communication and friendship. Contrastive studies of greetings emphasize their importance in understanding the culture of another language and ckm both native speakers and mfssagexxx of a language should learn how egpt greet appropriately e. According to Durantigreetings and farewells perform a number of functions un social communication: They are very essential elements in a conversation with a Gulf Arab, who always appreciates the use of Arabic phrases of politeness by foreign visitors, especially in business and diplomatic exchanges.
Some of these Arabic expressions have global religious dimensions and are found in the languages of the Islamic world e. But egypg greetings in Gulf Arabic are culture-specific and are not found even in other Nessagexxx dialects, numebrs. Arabic greetings are rarely mentioned in such literature. A review of the messagexcx studies on the topic cok necessary to numners the essential features of Arabic greetings numebrs general and Gulf greetings in particular. This is because we believe that a dictionary of this and other Arabic dialects should provide a realistic and informative account for these expressions for the benefit of the foreign user. One study involving Arabic greetings Ferguson highlighted some cross-cultural contrasts between Syrian Arabic and American English.
Ferguson examined the root-echo responses formulas that characterize Arabic politeness expressions. Many differences in detail were noticed e. He found that the structure and use of greetings are so culture specific and tied to the cultural history. Greetings in the Mecca speech community have been analyzed and classified by Hassanain who provided several examples of Saudi social expressions used in a variety of situations ranging from hello and leave taking to condoling and speaking of a dead person. After a quick comparison, we found that the majority of expressions in his list are common in the speech of Gulf people 39 out of 57 expressions, i. The religious nature prevails in these Meccan greetings especially in the responses where the greetee does not thank the greeter, but rather thanking God for the state of his own health p.
A variety of Gulf Arabic has been investigated by Emery who focused on three categories of politeness formulas in Omani Arabic: His first observation was the considerable overlap with Classical and pan-arabic usage although Omani Arabic had its own linguistic routines and patterns. He found that older people tend to use more formulas than young ones and are perceived as linguistically conservative by the younger generation. He identified three stages of greetings: From a lexicographic perspective, the present study will deal with the most common greeting expressions in the Gulf arranged in separate categories according to their possible order and contexts: For each set of formulas a table shows the most common greeting exchanges, their literal and dictionary translations, the part of the dictionary in which they are listed, their usual and dictionary responses and their dictionary explanations.
Greetings used to initiate an encounter In addition to the usual assalam alaikum greeting there are certain expressions used by Gulf people for opening a conversational exchange. Sometimes these are used to draw attention such as marhaba and allah bilxeer. Like their Classical Arabic source, Gulf Arabic and other Arabic dialects have highly polysemous lexical items including politeness expressions. Therefore, it is important to revise the treatment of these greetings in terms of the number of senses described. Most of the greetings examined in this study are allocated monosemous entries in the dictionary, thus providing the user with one context of usage among others.
The same applies to the responses which may vary. Not all Gulf greetings are specific to the speech community of the region. In this set of greetings marhaba and hala are also common in other areas of the Arab world while guwwa and alla bilxeer stand out as strictly Gulf-specific. Of course, dialectologists and ordinary users would benefit from such a distinction in the entries concerned. Most Gulf greetings are weakened forms from Classical Arabic but many learners may not see the connection. Thus the dictionary should make this clear to the user by providing the original Classical word or phrase. For example, hala was originally ahlan people, a shortened form of the Classical Arabic greeting ahlan wa sahlan people and plain, i.
Of this group of greetings the dictionary gives a sxe of the possible responses but the inflated responses are ignored as in Dating weller pottery marks case of marhabteen two welcomes and maraahib several welcomes, the latter showing pan-arabic influence Emery The dictionary does not treat these greetings consistently in terms of the part of dictionary where they are listed. The greeting marhaba is listed numbeds both parts while guwwa is found in the Gulf Arabic-English part only. This reliance on functional translation may conceal the exact meaning of the linguistic sign and may result in an entirely different English greeting.
Guwwa is given the English version how are you? The dictionary further confuses this user by giving I m fine as the translation of the response alla ygawwiik, literally messagexxxx God give you strength see table 1. This kind of entry may lead some learners to use the greeting clumsily e. It is therefore necessary to have a special label for these politeness phrases Nothing serious dating to idiom labels as they are both fixed units and usually convey non-literal meanings. Another point concerns the accuracy of transliterations which depart from the local norms of pronunciation.
Some Gulf greetings like halo biik indicate interference with the compiler s own Arabic dialect and emphasize the need to consult with natives for a more detailed and accurate description. Greetings used to initiate an encounter Expression: By God do the good! People Dictionary Hello, Hi How are Gkrls However, the dictionary fails to provide the usual responses except in the foamerica of the phrase shi luumak where the ebypt gives a negative response ma 9indi 9luum I have no news instead of the usual formulaic response luum xeer information of messayexxx. The dictionary lists only five out of six greetings of this type with the first two in both parts while the rest are listed in messagezxx part of the dictionary see table 2.
Even the English adverb efypt is the entry where one greeting is given as an equivalent of I hope you are well, fine making it hard for the user to locate such expressions meszagexxx a productive mode. The translations of health greetings show a tendency to concentrate on the function of the phrase nimbers. This explains why three out of the five health greetings have been given the English phrase how are you? As a result, the user will not have access to the exact meaning of the Arabic expression and some cultural and etymological information will be missing. For example, shluunak is explained in the dictionary foameircan being a contraction un shloon or shu foamericzn how?
It is a greeting form that appeared in the 19th century when an infectious Bedste datingside t?rnby that caused one s face to turn Girls numbers in egypt foamerican messagexxx sex com spread throughout the Gulf region and people used the question as a way of ensuring that the addressee was not affected by the disease. Asking about health and state of affairs Expression: What is your color? I hope you are well, fine! What are your news? What is your information? How is the health? What news How are do you have? It is clear from the above analysis that the Glossary of Gulf Arabic and similar dictionaries must accord special attention to these expressions of politeness, which are usually sought by people when first learning another language or dialect.
These words and phrases mostly do not have referential meanings and the learner is required to know the appropriate responses. We have found that there exists a great deal of inconsistency in the provision of responses in the Glossary of Gulf Arabic. Also, explanations that indicate the functions and situations are rare. As for the translation of greetings, we noticed a tendency to provide functional translations, i. It is also necessary to provide the literal translation for each greeting so users can recognize the exact meaning of the Arabic phrase.
In some cases there is need to refer to the etymology of some greetings, e. Locating Gulf greetings in the dictionary poses great difficulty for the English-speaking user as the dictionary does not follow the root-based system consistently. Words and phrases are entered in many cases according to the English alphabetical order in the Gulf Arabic-English part. In addition, the organization of entries in the English-Gulf Arabic part was not helpful either. For example, the greeting asaak tayyib is listed under the entry word hopefully although tayyib well is the main part of the greeting. It seems that the differences between the two languages have forced the compiler to list most of these expressions in the Gulf Arabic-English section Another problem is related to the microstructure of the dictionary where we can find two synonymous greetings sabaah elxeer and sabbahk allah bilxeer in the same entry but located five lines away from each other.
The dictionary entries that we examined show a bias in the dictionary in favor of greeting forms often used by the elderly, which emphasizes the importance of data collection of material for such a dictionary i. Surely, the dictionary user will benefit from some sort of indication at the entry as to whether the greeting in question is likely to be used for an elderly or young person. It may be more beneficial to provide a list of these greetings in their usual sequence and adjacency pairs along with their possible responses in a special section in such a dictionary with cross-references to the relevant entries in both parts. This will improve accessibility of the dictionary especially for a user interested in further information such as example sentences, word roots or etymology.
Finally, the treatment of greetings in dictionaries of Gulf Arabic requires comprehensiveness, accurate translation and improved accessibility. This can be achieved by reliance on a team of editors who are natives of the Gulf and include specialists in linguistics, translation and lexicography. Librairie du Liban Publishers. Other references Abu-Haidar, F. Reasons for using the websites in ESL learning include their authentic language; leading to increased motivation, interaction and creativity; and encouraging learner centeredness, the discovery method of learning and learner independence. Nevertheless, teachers contribution remain important for coordinating group planning, focusing learners attention on linguistic aspects of computer-mediated texts, in helping students in developing individual learning strategies, and creating an appropriate atmosphere for language learning.
To fully exploit these opportunities, the teacher must learn to become a guide on the side rather than a sage on the stage Warschauer, Collected data showed that in spite of some difficulties students had a positive attitude to using the chosen hyperextend websites in their EFL learning. Learners interest to learning languages has been enforced by the availability of the Internet, which provides easy access to every possible kind of information and an effective tool to facilitate learning. The increasing emphasis and promotion of autonomous learning of foreign languages and the widening role of online technologies have lately become the major features in language teaching.
The question today is how to harness electronic technology and guide our students in their study and use. There are different EFL websites for language teachers Opalka, Authentic language, increased motivation, interaction, creativity, student centeredness, discovery method of learning and working independently can be the reasons for using the websites in ESL learning. However, we should be aware of the problems such as accuracy, appropriateness, and appeal easy to use, interesting to read and reliability of the information on the web when applying websites in the classrooms Opalka, Nevertheless, teachers contribution remain important for coordinating group planning, focusing learners attention on linguistic aspects of computer mediated texts, helping students in developing individual learning strategies, and creating an appropriate atmosphere for language learning.
Bush originally elaborated the concept of hypertext. He foresaw the need for a major effort to mechanize the scientific literature system. He felt the need for a system that would help people find information more easily than was possible by using print technology. It was much later and particularly with the development of the microcomputer that hypertext came into relatively common use. Conklin s hypertext survey appeared in and described no fewer than 8 systems. Essentially a hypertext system is a computer-based approach to information management in which data are stored in networks of nodes connected by links.
Locatis, Letouneau, and Banvartd Harvey characterizes hypertext as an integrated tripartite application: Scrimshaw sees it as an open-ended set of topics connected by variable links. For Nelson hypertext is non-linear text.
WORDS IN ASIAN CULTURAL CONTEXTS (REVISED VERSION)
Girls numbers in egypt foamerican messagexxx sex com Whatever the differences between systems, they all allow information to be accessed non-sequentially through machine supported links and in terms reminding of Bush Mature with big pussy, are said mmessagexxx mimic the associative properties of the mind FiderioJonassen Advantages of hypertext When using hypertext the Freefoot fetish dating sites have a more active role than is possible with messagexx textbooks.
They are required to make decisions toamerican the information they are accessing through the computer. Students using hypertext must be mentally active. Consequently, learning becomes more student-centered. Students become active learners. Simultaneously, students not only become foanerican mentally active, they also interact with new ways of presenting information through computer-based technologies. Reasons for using the web in the Foamerjcan classroom By now, it is evident that the web is here to stay and that it will influence society. It is impossible messagexcx predict exactly what effects numners web will have in the future, numhers based on the experiences messsagexxx far, it would be reasonable to conclude jn it will have great significance.
In the information world, there is a need for understanding of the technology. New technologies should be assimilated into the curriculum and into teaching methods. Thus, universities will have to prepare their students for the information world and make effective use of ICT to provide better education Van Assche, Van Assche points out several benefits of using the web: Universities will be able to cope better with the challenges of preparing the students for the information society. By ICT education will change from being told to exploration with a much deeper understanding. Tolerance and respect for other cultures will be formed in universities.
Finally, the use of the web will link the abstraction of teaching material with real life in the outside world. When examining the FL messsagexxx goals, one discovers that the use of the web can be useful in attaining these objectives. Students will understand foreign cultures by having access to vast resources of authentic material about them. The ultimate goal of turning students into life-long learners by using the language for personal enjoyment and enrichment becomes much more realistic nkmbers students continue to use the web. The web can play an important role in EEL learning. It is all about communicating and offers possibilities that would never be feasible in a traditional ij setting.
Furthermore, the use of the web supports the shift from the teacher-centered classroom to one in which the student is in the center. Using computers and talking live to others motivate students. Goodmanon the other hand, defines reading as follows: Reading is a receptive language process. It is a psycholinguistic process in that it starts with a linguistic surface representation encoded by a writer and ends with meaning, which the reader constructs P. It has been confirmed by Carrell, Devine, and Eskey that reading is no longer a process of decoding but rather an integration of top-down processes that utilize background knowledge and schema, as well as bottom-up processes that are primarily text or data-driven cited in Richards,p.
Reading requires sufficient knowledge of language. Purpose of the study The degree to which the Internet is useful in Language learning especially in reading comprehension depends on how well the found materials match the students needs and their ability level. Despite of the availability of resources, they may not be useful unless the learners know how to use them to facilitate language learning and reading comprehension. In this regard, the writer of the paper has done this research to introduce students to use selected hyperextend EFL websites for their language learning. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to evaluate these questions: Do the teacher introduced websites increase learner autonomy in EFL?
Are teacher used guidelines considered to be useful in enhancing EFL learning through hyperextend web sites? What problems and difficulties did students have in using selected hyperextend web sites? Are the students willing to use ESL websites for other classes during their four years of education? Methodology Subjects 24 low advanced level students majoring in English in University were selected. They already had 5 years of formal education in English language at high school. The students were freshmen at the time of the research and were taking four obligatory English courses: Lab, Writing, Reading, and Structure.
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